Importance Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Objective To test the roles of initial psychiatric reactions, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and ongoing stressors on delayed-onset PTSD
Importance Long-term longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the trajectory of depressive symptoms across adulthood and to individuate factors that may contribute to increases in depressive symptoms in older adulthood. Objectives To estimate the trajectory of depressive symptoms across the adult life span; to test whether this trajectory varies by demographic factors (sex, ethnicity, and educational level) and antidepressant medication use; and to test whether disease burden, functional limitations, and proximity to death explain the increase in depressive symptoms in old age. Design Longitudinal study
Abstract: Objective: There is paucity of information on epilepsy and suicide in Nigeria. The objective of this study therefore was to assess the prevalence and determinants of suicide risk among adults with epilepsy (AWE) in Kaduna, Nigeria.Method: We administered the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the three-item Oslo Social Support Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to 170 consecutive AWE attending the outpatient clinic of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Kaduna, between January and June 2011 to determine the prevalence of suicide risk, the level of social support and the psychological symptoms, respectively. We also recorded the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects.Results: There are 99 males and 71 females.
Importance Currently, fewer than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder achieve remission with initial treatment. Identification of a biological marker that might improve these odds could have significant health and economic impact. Objective To identify a candidate neuroimaging “treatment-specific biomarker” that predicts differential outcome to either medication or psychotherapy
Abstract: Background: Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders.Objective: The aim of the study was to look for suicide risk factors among sociodemographic and clinical factors, family history and stressful life events in patients with diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder (597 patients, 563 controls).Method: In the study, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Operational Criteria Diagnostic Checklist questionnaires, a questionnaire of family history, and a questionnaire of personality disorders and life events were used.Results: In the bipolar and unipolar affective disorders sample, we observed an association between suicidal attempts and the following: family history of psychiatric disorders, affective disorders and psychoactive substance abuse/dependence; inappropriate guilt in depression; chronic insomnia and early onset of unipolar disorder. The risk of suicide attempt differs in separate age brackets (it is greater in patients under 45 years old)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of different forms of intimate partner violence (physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking) on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression.Methods: In all 268 women (18 years and older) consecutively receiving a protection order in the Vhembe district in South Africa were assessed by an external interviewer. Hierarchical regressions tested the unique effects of different types of intimate partner violence on PTSD and depression.Results: In terms of PTSD symptom severity, more than half (51.9%) of the sample reported severe PTSD and 66.4% reported severe depression symptoms.
Background This study examined the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of d -cycloserine (DCS)–augmented cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children and adolescents with difficult-to-treat Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, in a double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial (RCT). Methods Seventeen children and adolescents (aged 8–18 years) with a primary diagnosis of OCD, which was deemed difficult-to-treat, were randomly assigned to either nine sessions of CBT including five sessions of DCS-augmented exposure and response prevention (ERP) [ERP + DCS] or nine sessions of CBT including five sessions of placebo-augmented ERP [ERP + PBO]. Weight-dependent DCS or placebo doses (25 or 50 mg) were taken 1 hour before ERP sessions.
Importance Psychostimulant medication is an efficacious treatment for childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, yet controversy remains regarding potential iatrogenic effects of stimulant medication, particularly with respect to increasing susceptibility to later substance use disorders. However, stimulant treatment was previously reported to reduce the risk of substance problems.
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between alcohol use and psychological well-being among undergraduates of a Nigerian tertiary institution. The objectives included determining the prevalence and pattern of problematic alcohol use and ascertaining the association between alcohol use and some sociodemographic variables.Method: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to evaluate for alcohol-related problems in 443 students of a university in southwestern Nigeria.
Abstract: Objective: A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes.Method: This study on the findings of the technical expert panel.Results: Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated.