Importance Longer-term mortality in individuals who have survived a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. Objectives To examine the relationship between TBI and premature mortality, particularly by external causes, and determine the role of psychiatric comorbidity. Design, Setting, and Patients We studied all persons born in 1954 or later in Sweden who received inpatient and outpatient International Classification of Diseases -based diagnoses of TBI from 1969 to 2009 (n?=?218?300)
Cross-sectional studies remain a major source of data for research, practice, and policy, despite well-known limitations of this approach in assessing psychopathology. Such studies are especially valuable when the intent is to identify current or recent cases and in repeated studies where trends in rates can be examined. Yet, how well do they identify psychiatric symptoms and syndromes from the past?
Abstract: Background: Although depressive disorders are associated with increased health care utilization in the elderly living in high-income countries, few studies have examined this relationship in Latin America.Method: The present study is part of the São Paulo Ageing and Health Study, a population-based epidemiological study of mental disorders in 2072 low-income adults ? 65 years old living in São Paulo, Brazil. Depressive disorders defined as major depressive disorder (MDD) and clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CRDS) were assessed with the Geriatric Mental State and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We examined the association between depressive disorders/symptoms and health care utilization (outpatient visits, hospital admissions and medication use in the past 3 months) using count models.Results: The prevalence of MDD and CRDS was 4.9% and 21.4%, respectively
Abstract: Objective: To explore the frequency of different motor subtypes of delirium in children and adolescents and to study the relationship of motor subtypes with other symptoms, etiology and outcome of delirium.Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients, aged 8–19 years, diagnosed as having delirium as per DSM-IV-TR were assessed on Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 98 (DRS-R-98), amended Delirium Motor Symptom Scale (DMSS), delirium etiology checklist and risk factors for delirium. Different motoric subtypes of delirium were compared with each other for symptoms of delirium as assessed by DRS-R-98, risk factors, etiology and outcome.Results: More than half (53%) of patients were classified as having hyperactive delirium, this was followed by the mixed (26.5%) and the hypoactive (16%) subtype. When the different subtypes were compared with each other, the 3 motor subtypes did not differ from each other in terms of frequency and severity of other symptoms except for minor differences
Abstract: Objectives: To examine the relationship between antidepressant use in pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB).Data Sources and Study Selection: We searched English and non-English language articles via PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO (from their start dates through December 1st, 2012). We used the following keywords and their combinations: antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), pregnancy, antenatal, prenatal, birthweight, birth weight, preterm, prematurity, gestational age, fetal growth restriction, intrauterine growth restriction, and small-for-gestational age. Published studies were considered eligible if they examined exposure to antidepressant medication use during pregnancy and reported data on at least one birth outcome of interest: PTB (
Importance Several studies report an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder. However, past research evidences difficulty in disaggregating prenatal environmental influences from genetic and postnatal environmental influences.
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among inpatients and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, medical illnesses and treatments.Methods: In the present study, we selected 650 inpatients from all clinics except psychiatry and pediatrics in a general hospital by a simple random sampling method. Based on the exclusion criteria, 57 patients were excluded.
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between alcohol use and psychological well-being among undergraduates of a Nigerian tertiary institution. The objectives included determining the prevalence and pattern of problematic alcohol use and ascertaining the association between alcohol use and some sociodemographic variables.Method: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to evaluate for alcohol-related problems in 443 students of a university in southwestern Nigeria.
Abstract: Objective: This study examined if associations between body mass index (BMI) and mental and physical health were independent of genetic and familial factors.Method: Data from 2831 twins (66% female) were used in an epidemiological co-twin control design with measures of BMI and mental and physical health outcomes. Generalized estimating equation regressions assessed relationships between BMI and health outcomes controlling for interdependency among twins and demographics. Within-pair regression analyses examined the association of BMI with health outcomes controlling for genetic and familial influences.Results: Adjusted analyses with individual twins found associations in women between BMI and perceived stress (P=.01) and depression (P=.002), and the link between BMI and depression (P=.03) was significant in men
Importance Psychotic persons who are violent often explain their violence as being due to delusions. However, research has failed to confirm associations between delusions and violent behavior. Objectives To investigate which delusional beliefs and characteristics are associated with violent behavior during a first episode of psychosis and whether these associations are mediated by affect due to delusions