Opioid abuse is reaching epidemic proportions in the United States. The consequences of opioid abuse and dependence include emergency department visits, premature death, HIV, hepatitis, criminal activity, lost workdays, and economic costs that in the United States exceed $56 billion annually. Agonist maintenance is the most efficacious treatment for opioid dependence and dramatically reduces morbidity, mortality, and spread of infectious disease

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Importance Longer-term mortality in individuals who have survived a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. Objectives To examine the relationship between TBI and premature mortality, particularly by external causes, and determine the role of psychiatric comorbidity. Design, Setting, and Patients We studied all persons born in 1954 or later in Sweden who received inpatient and outpatient International Classification of Diseases -based diagnoses of TBI from 1969 to 2009 (n?=?218?300)

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