Importance Obesity has emerged as a leading health threat but its biological basis remains insufficiently known, hampering the search for novel treatments. Here, we study oleoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that has been clearly implicated in weight regulation in animals. However, its role for weight regulation and obesity in humans is still unclear

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Importance Despite a remarkable co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia, little is known about the clinical and etiological relationship of these 2 disorders. Exploring the degree to which these disorders share etiological factors might provide useful implications for clinicians, researchers, and those with the disorders. Objectives To assess whether patients with OCD experience an enhanced risk of developing schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to determine whether a family history of OCD constitutes a risk factor for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

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Importance The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the zinc finger protein 804A gene ( ZNF804A ) shows genome-wide association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Little is known regarding the expression of ZNF804A and the functionality of rs1344706. Objectives To characterize ZNF804A expression in human brain and to investigate how it changes across the life span and how it is affected by rs1344706, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

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Importance There is a paucity of controlled treatment trials for the treatment of conversion disorder, seizures type, also known as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, the most common conversion disorder, are as disabling as epilepsy and are not adequately addressed or treated by mental health clinicians.

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Abstract: Objective: Eating disorder (ED) symptoms have gone mostly unexamined among veterans. The current study assessed rates of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms and diagnoses and their associations with common comorbidities among male and female veterans.Method: Participants were US military veterans who screened positive for trauma histories and/or a probable Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis (n=499). Symptoms of PTSD were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and symptoms of EDs, mood, and substance use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV.Results: Lifetime rates of BN and BED diagnoses were comparable to civilian populations, and a considerable range of lifetime and current BN and BED symptoms were identified

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Importance Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most common sequelae of childhood maltreatment, yet the independent contributions of SUDs and childhood maltreatment to neurobiological changes and the effect of the latter on relapse risk (a critical variable in addiction treatment) are relatively unknown. Objectives To identify structural neural characteristics independently associated with childhood maltreatment (CM; a common type of childhood adversity), comparing a sample with SUD with a demographically comparable control sample, and to examine the relationship between CM-related structural brain changes and subsequent relapse. Design, Setting, and Participants Structural magnetic resonance imaging study comparing 79 treatment-engaged participants with SUD in acute remission in inpatient treatment at a community mental health center vs 98 healthy control participants at an outpatient research center at an academic medical center

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Importance Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been established as efficacious for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among older children and adolescents, yet its effect on young children has not been evaluated sufficiently. Objective To examine the relative efficacy of family-based CBT (FB-CBT) involving exposure plus response prevention vs an FB relaxation treatment (FB-RT) control condition for children 5 to 8 years of age. Design, Setting, and Participants A 14-week randomized clinical trial (Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young Children [POTS Jr]) conducted at 3 academic medical centers between 2006 and 2011, involving 127 pediatric outpatients 5 to 8 years of age who received a primary diagnosis of OCD and a Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total score of 16 or higher.

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Importance Pediatric anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and impairing and are considered gateway disorders in that they predict adult psychiatric problems. Although they can be effectively treated in the short term, data are limited on the long-term outcomes in treated children and adolescents, particularly those treated with medication.

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Importance There are no medications approved for treating cannabis dependence or withdrawal. The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex), developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal. Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nabiximols in treating cannabis withdrawal

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Importance The N -methyl- d -aspartic acid receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts a paradoxical increase in synaptic glutamate release. In vivo measurement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in humans is challenging, but glutamine, the principal metabolite of synaptic glutamate, can be quantified with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Although a few studies have measured glutamate, glutamine, and glutamine to glutamate ratio, it is not clear which of these 1 H-MRS indices of glutamatergic neurotransmission is altered in schizophrenia

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