Importance Cigarette smoking leads to upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the human brain, including the common ?4?2* nAChR subtype. While subjective aspects of tobacco dependence have been extensively examined as predictors of quitting smoking with treatment, no studies to our knowledge have yet reported the relationship between the extent of pretreatment upregulation of nAChRs and smoking cessation. Objective To determine whether the degree of nAChR upregulation in smokers predicts quitting with a standard course of treatment.

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Importance Genetic factors contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. A focus on measuring multisystem quantitative traits that may be components of BP psychopathology may enable genetic dissection of this complex disorder, and investigation of extended pedigrees from genetically isolated populations may facilitate the detection of specific genetic variants that affect BP as well as its component phenotypes. Objective To identify quantitative neurocognitive, temperament-related, and neuroanatomical phenotypes that appear heritable and associated with severe BP (bipolar I disorder [BP-I]) and therefore suitable for genetic linkage and association studies aimed at identifying variants contributing to BP-I risk.

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Abstract: Transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome (TLVABS), also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes, and release of myocardial enzymes that mimic acute myocardial infarction in patients without angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease. Most patients are post-menopausal women and an emotional or physiologic stressor frequently precedes the presentation.Psychogenic or dissociative amnesia is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde memory loss with inability to recall personal information said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to years after a stressful event.Interestingly, the mechanism of both disorders has been linked to plasma elevation in catecholamines.Here we present the case of a 66-year-old female diagnosed with both TLVABS and dissociative amnesia following the sudden unexpected death of her sister. To our knowledge, this is surprisingly the first report of the co-occurrence of TLVABS and dissociative amnesia, two processes with a potential shared underlying etiology.

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For the past few years, we at NIMH have been increasingly focusing our research on serious mental illness (SMI). You can see the term SMI in recent blogs as well as in publications from NIMH.

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Importance Epigenetic studies present unique opportunities to advance schizophrenia research because they can potentially account for many of its clinical features and suggest novel strategies to improve disease management. Objective To identify schizophrenia DNA methylation biomarkers in blood. Design, Setting, and Participants The sample consisted of 759 schizophrenia cases and 738 controls (N?=?1497) collected in Sweden

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Importance Although early mortality in severe psychiatric illness is linked to smoking and alcohol, to our knowledge, no studies have comprehensively characterized substance use behavior in severe psychotic illness. In particular, recent assessments of substance use in individuals with mental illness are based on population surveys that do not include individuals with severe psychotic illness.

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Importance Neurochemical studies in human aggression point to a modulatory role for a variety of central neurotransmitters. Some of these neurotransmitters play an inhibitory role, while others play a facilitatory role modulating aggression.

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Abstract: There is considerable literature on the neuropsychiatric effects of antiretrovirals. This is the first case, to our knowledge, of new-onset obsessive–compulsive symptoms correlated with emtricitabine/tenofovir, a commonly prescribed HIV prophylaxis combination. We describe the case of a woman, who developed upsetting obsessive thoughts following initiation of this pharmacotherapy and include discussion of relevant literature.

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Abstract: Specific phobia is an excessive and irrational fear often triggered by a stressor. Among different types of phobias arising in medical settings, we could not find any case reported for exclusively antiseptic fluids without any medical–surgical intervention. The term “anesthesia awareness” (AA) signifies the specific surgical period of time when an individual, in spite of being under intended general anesthesia, remains aware of the sensory stimuli and the memories of which also remain available for his subsequent explicit recall in the future.

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Abstract: There is considerable literature on the neuropsychiatric effects of antiretrovirals. This is the first case, to our knowledge, of new-onset obsessive–compulsive symptoms correlated with emtricitabine/tenofovir, a commonly prescribed HIV prophylaxis combination.

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