Director’s Blog Each year at this time, the Kavli Foundation announces its annual scientific prizes. In contrast to the Nobel Prizes, the Kavli Prizes cover three focal areas of science: astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience. Fred Kavli, who died recently, described these prizes as recognizing those who work on “the biggest, the smallest, and the most complex.” This year’s awards in neuroscience, to Brenda Milner, John O’Keefe, and Marcus Raichle, continue the tradition of recognizing those who embrace complexity.

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Abstract: Objective: Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses. The reliability and the validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, a depression screening tool, have not been examined in the general population in China.

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Abstract: Objective: The objective was to investigate impulsiveness among chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and its association with sociodemographic, clinical and psychopathological factors.Method: Ninety-one CHC individuals were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at a Brazilian public university-based outpatient’s service for infectious diseases. They were assessed using the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Structured psychiatric interview was performed according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview.

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Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the development of depression during interferon-alpha (IFN-?) therapy and the variations in the expression of the serotonin receptor (5-HTR) and transporter (5-HTT) in hepatitis C patients.Method: Hepatitis C patients (n=277) were given the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at the end of IFN-? therapy. Three polymorphisms were genotyped: the serotonin transporter repeat length polymorphic region [5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)], as well as SNPs rs25531 and rs6295, located within the 5-HTTLPR and the transcriptional control region of the 5-HTR1A gene, respectively.Results: The diagnosis of current depression, which was associated with IFN-?-related depression (P

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Abstract: Objectives: This study investigates the possibility of introducing depression and developmental screening tools into the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) in southeast Nigeria. The specific objectives were to determine the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) among mothers attending immunization clinics and to assess the association of maternal PPD and infant growth in relation to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations.Methods: Four hundred and eight (408) mothers completed the sociodemographic questionnaire and the self-report Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS).

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Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare behavioral outcomes (physical activity, sedentary behavior, smoking cessation, diet) between the intervention and usual care conditions from the TEAMcare trial.Methods: TEAMcare was a randomized trial among 214 adults with depression and poorly controlled diabetes and/or coronary heart disease that promoted health behavior change and pharmacotherapy to improve health. Behavioral outcomes were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (physical activity, sitting time) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (smoking, diet, exercise).

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Abstract: Objective: This cross-sectional study considered whether variability in respiratory functioning could explain the variability in walking ability of individuals with schizophrenia taking into account variability in body mass index (BMI), lifestyle factors, psychiatric symptoms, antipsychotic medication use and muscular fitness.Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia and 40 age, gender and BMI matched controls underwent a spirometry, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients were additionally screened for psychiatric symptoms.Results: Compared to health controls, patients with schizophrenia achieved a lower distance on the 6MWT (583.6±109.7m versus 710.6±108.4m, p

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Abstract: Objective: There is paucity of information on epilepsy and suicide in Nigeria. The objective of this study therefore was to assess the prevalence and determinants of suicide risk among adults with epilepsy (AWE) in Kaduna, Nigeria.Method: We administered the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the three-item Oslo Social Support Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to 170 consecutive AWE attending the outpatient clinic of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Kaduna, between January and June 2011 to determine the prevalence of suicide risk, the level of social support and the psychological symptoms, respectively. We also recorded the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects.Results: There are 99 males and 71 females.

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Importance Research across more than 4 decades has produced numerous empirically tested evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for psychopathology in children and adolescents. The EBPs were developed to improve on usual clinical interventions. Advocates argue that the EBPs should replace usual care, but this assumes that EBPs produce better outcomes than usual care.

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Abstract: Objective: In Europe and the US, primary care has been anticipated in identifying untreated depression. Findings show a high prevalence of depression in such settings. However, the prevalence of depression in an internal medicine clinic in a rural area of Japan, which has a role in primary care, is unclear.Method: The prevalence of depression and comorbid psychiatric disorders among outpatients of an internal medicine clinic in a rural general hospital was measured by a structured interview using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview.

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