Importance Despite a remarkable co-occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia, little is known about the clinical and etiological relationship of these 2 disorders. Exploring the degree to which these disorders share etiological factors might provide useful implications for clinicians, researchers, and those with the disorders. Objectives To assess whether patients with OCD experience an enhanced risk of developing schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to determine whether a family history of OCD constitutes a risk factor for schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

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Importance Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most common sequelae of childhood maltreatment, yet the independent contributions of SUDs and childhood maltreatment to neurobiological changes and the effect of the latter on relapse risk (a critical variable in addiction treatment) are relatively unknown. Objectives To identify structural neural characteristics independently associated with childhood maltreatment (CM; a common type of childhood adversity), comparing a sample with SUD with a demographically comparable control sample, and to examine the relationship between CM-related structural brain changes and subsequent relapse. Design, Setting, and Participants Structural magnetic resonance imaging study comparing 79 treatment-engaged participants with SUD in acute remission in inpatient treatment at a community mental health center vs 98 healthy control participants at an outpatient research center at an academic medical center

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Abstract: Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of and possible risk factors for skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: All of 337 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from the therapeutic community of a psychiatric hospital and underwent a detailed skin examination. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to compare the prevalence of skin diseases between patients with schizophrenia and those without.Results: In the clinical survey, fungal infection (61.4%) and dermatitis (46.9%) were the most common skin diseases.

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In this issue of JAMA Psychiatry , Gur et al evaluated differences in age-related neurocognitive test performance and psychosis symptoms in the context of a large population-based cohort. The rationale for this study grew out of observations that psychotic symptoms are relatively common in the general population and that individuals who have had a recent emergence of psychoticlike symptoms, but of subpsychotic intensity, are at increased risk for progressing to full psychosis within a few years of ascertainment. Given that such prodromal cases show neurocognitive deficits similar to those observed in first-episode schizophrenia, the Gur et al study sought to extend evidence of this link to participants with psychotic symptoms as ascertained through primary care, independently of seeking treatment for psychiatric indications.

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Importance Studies have shown that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with transport accidents, but the magnitude of the association remains unclear. Most important, it is also unclear whether ADHD medication reduces this risk.

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Importance There has been recent interest in the findings that the offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of both de novo mutations and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the offspring of younger parents are also at risk for some adverse mental health outcomes.

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Abstract: Objective: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of routine web-based screening in general hospital settings, and describe the level of common mental disorder.Method: A service development platform to integrate mental and physical healthcare was implemented in 6 specialties (rheumatology, limb reconstruction, hepatitis C, psoriasis, adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), chronic pain) across 3 general hospitals in London, UK. Under service conditions, patients completed a web-based questionnaire comprising mental and physical patient-reported outcome measures, whilst waiting for their appointment.

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Patients with certain types of noncancer pain, including back pain, migraine, and psychogenic pain, have been found to have a significantly increased risk for suicide, new research suggests. Medscape Medical News

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Abstract: Objective: Traumatic life events are important risk factors for eating disorders (ED). War has been associated, in military populations, with an increased post-service incidence of ED and an increased mean body mass index. We hypothesize that a modification of eating behavior (EB) related to stress during wartime may increase the risk of developing an ED later on among civilians exposed to war stress during adulthood.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in a group of 303 undergraduate young adult students of both sexes from Lebanon, 6 months after the July 2006 war.

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Abstract: Objective: The increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder has been documented. No study examined MetS in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), despite the fact that a great proportion of them are treated with antipsychotic addition.

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