Importance Reward-related disturbances after withdrawal from nicotine are hypothesized to contribute to relapse to tobacco smoking but mechanisms underlying and linking such processes remain largely unknown. Objective To determine whether withdrawal from nicotine affects reward responsiveness (ie, the propensity to modulate behavior as a function of prior reinforcement experience) across species using translational behavioral assessments in humans and rats. Design, Setting, Participants Experimental studies used analogous reward responsiveness tasks in both humans and rats to examine whether reward responsiveness varied in (1) an ad libitum smoking condition compared with a 24-hour acute nicotine abstinence condition in 31 human smokers with (n?=?17) or without (n?=?14) a history of depression; (2) rats 24 hours after withdrawal from chronic nicotine (n?=?19) or saline (n?=?20); and (3) rats following acute nicotine exposure after withdrawal from either chronic nicotine or saline administration

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Importance No highly effective interventions to prevent delirium have been identified. Objective To examine whether ramelteon, a melatonin agonist, is effective for the prevention of delirium. Design, Setting, and Participants A multicenter, rater-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed in intensive care units and regular acute wards of 4 university hospitals and 1 general hospital

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Abstract: Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is significantly and positively associated with several physical conditions. We aimed to examine whether the nature and number of trauma(s) experienced may be related to physical conditions using a population-based sample.Methods: Data came from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=34, 653; age 20 years and older).

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Abstract: Objective: The objective was to examine whether prophylactic treatment with antipsychotics can decrease the incidence and severity of postsurgical delirium.Method: A meta-analysis of existing trials comparing delirium incidence between patients given prophylactic antipsychotic and placebo was performed. Secondary outcomes were total hospital days, total days of delirium and severity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences were calculated using a random-effects model.Results: Five randomized placebo-controlled trials comprising a total of 1491 patients were included.

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Abstract: Objective: To examine whether preoperative psychological dysfunctions rather than intraoperative factors may differentially predict short- and long-term postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) in patients after cardiac surgery.Method: Forty-two patients completed a psychological evaluation, including the Trail Making Test Part A and B (TMT-A/B), the memory with 10/30-s interference, the phonemic verbal fluency and the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression (CES-D) scale for cognitive functions and depressive symptoms, respectively, before surgery, at discharge and at 18-month follow-up.Results: Ten (24%) and 11 (26%) patients showed POCD at discharge and at 18-month follow-up, respectively. The duration of cardiopulmonary bypass significantly predicted short-term POCD [odds ratio (OR)=1.04, P .23).Conclusions: Our findings showed that preexisting depressive symptoms rather than perioperative risk factors are associated with cognitive decline 18 months after cardiac surgery. This study suggests that a preoperative psychological evaluation of depressive symptoms is essential to anticipate which patients are likely to show long-term cognitive decline after cardiac surgery.

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Importance Maternal depression is a major risk factor for the development of children’s mental health problems. No population-based study to date has examined whether early child care spanning the full preschool period from infancy onward is protective for children of depressed mothers. Objective To examine whether early child care moderates associations between maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) and child internalizing problems (emotional problems [EPs], separation anxiety symptoms, and social withdrawal symptoms [SWSs]) during the preschool period.

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Abstract: Objective: The objective was to examine whether preexisting cognitive function rather than cognitive decline associated with intraoperative procedures may predict change in behavioral functional capacity in patients 1 year after cardiac surgery.Method: Forty-five patients completed a cognitive evaluation, including the Trail Making Test part B (TMT-B) for attention and psychomotor speed, the Memory with 10-s interference for working memory, the Digit Span test for short-term memory and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) questionnaire for behavioral functional capacity, before surgery and 1 year after cardiac surgery.Results: Sixteen patients (36%) exhibited cognitive decline after cardiac surgery. Preoperative scores on TMT-B significantly predicted change in behavioral functional capacity as measured by IADLs (beta=0.371, P .08).Conclusions: Preexisting cognitive dysfunctions as assessed by TMT-B can be a marker of preoperative brain dysfunction, which, in turn, in addition to brain damage caused by cardiac surgery procedures, may further predispose patients to poor behavioral functional capacity and outcome 1 year after surgery.

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