Importance Exposure to trauma increases the risk for developing threat (ie, fear) symptoms, such as reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and loss (ie, dysphoria) symptoms, such as emotional numbing and depressive symptoms. While preclinical data have implicated the activated dynorphin/?-opioid receptor (KOR) system in relation to these symptoms, the role of the KOR system in mediating these phenotypes in humans is unknown. Elucidation of molecular targets implicated in threat and loss symptoms is important because it can help inform the development of novel, mechanism-based treatments for trauma-related psychopathology.

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Since its initial discovery in the 1800s until recently, myelin was considered a simple insulator for axons, and its formation was believed to be regulated by predetermined biochemical and cellular processes. Moreover, both oligodendrocytes and the myelin they generate were considered to be static components of the nervous system. However, recent studies have revealed that oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes that continue throughout adult life, are influenced by experience and neuronal activity, and contribute to cognitive function and behavior

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For pediatricians and parents, one of the most important tools is decidedly low tech. The growth chart, a simple graph of the trajectory of the normal range of height, weight, and head circumference across age, is a vital tool for detecting problems in development. Even when a child is in the normal range, identifying a change from the 80 th percentile at age 6 to the 20 th percentile at age 8 can indicate a problem.

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Importance We previously reported a 90% decreased risk in major depression, assessed prospectively, in adult offspring of depressed probands who reported that religion or spirituality was highly important to them. Frequency of church attendance was not significantly related to depression risk. Our previous brain imaging findings in adult offspring in these high-risk families also revealed large expanses of cortical thinning across the lateral surface of the right cerebral hemisphere

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Abstract: Objective: Since the early reports associating extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), SSRIs have been pointed as more common offenders among antidepressants in producing EPS. The induction of EPS by SSRIs has been thought to be a consequence of serotonergically mediated inhibition of the dopaminergic system.

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Abstract: Objective: Female sexual hormones (estrogens and gestagens) may affect neurocognitive functioning and mood. Thus, the use of oral hormonal contraceptives (OHC) bears the risk of psychiatric adverse drug reactions such as depression and psychosis.

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Importance Several studies report an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder. However, past research evidences difficulty in disaggregating prenatal environmental influences from genetic and postnatal environmental influences.

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Stimulant medications in adolescents with ADHD appear to have a protective effect on the development of substance abuse disorders in this patient population. Medscape Medical News

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Importance Maternal depression is a major risk factor for the development of children’s mental health problems. No population-based study to date has examined whether early child care spanning the full preschool period from infancy onward is protective for children of depressed mothers. Objective To examine whether early child care moderates associations between maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) and child internalizing problems (emotional problems [EPs], separation anxiety symptoms, and social withdrawal symptoms [SWSs]) during the preschool period.

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Importance Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking. Objective To estimate the effect of autoimmune diseases and infections on the risk of developing mood disorders

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