Michael Eriksen Benros, MD, PhD

National Centre for Register-based Research, Aarhus University; Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark

First published in Psychiatry Weekly, September 2013, 8(18).

Introduction

The human body’s inflammatory reaction to infection has for some time been understood as a possible etiological risk factor for the development of some psychiatric disorders. It is not, however, a well-understood risk factor. Animal studies have indicated that inflammation and brain-reactive antibodies can induce neuropsychiatric symptoms. Whether this can be generalized to humans is still debatable, since similar randomized studies in humans are nearly impossible to conduct due to ethical reasons. However, using Danish national health registries, Dr. Michael Eriksen Benros and colleagues recently published the first large scale, population-based study examining the extent to which inflammation and subsequent mood disorders are related.

Read >

Abstract: Objective: To examine the associations between depressive/anxiety disorders (DAs), perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mortality in dialysis patients.Methods: Patients were assessed for depressive and DAs with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcome Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36), and the Beck Depression Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also applied. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected.Results: Patients with depressive disorders reported more impaired HRQOL on four of the eight subscales, while those with a depressive disorder comorbid with DA reported more impairment on all MOS SF-36 subscales compared to those without any psychiatric disorder.

Read >

Abstract: Objective: We aimed to determine Axis I psychiatric disorders in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to follow up the course of psychiatric disorder and its association with nausea and vomiting (NV) during pregnancy.Methods: The study sample was composed of 47 patients with HG. Psychiatric interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-I).

Read >

Abstract: Objective: Depression is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and a risk factor for COPD exacerbation and death. The objective of this study was to determine the associations of depression diagnosis and antidepressant treatment with mortality among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)-eligible (age

Read >

Importance Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pervasive and often debilitating condition that affects many individuals in the general population and military service members. Effective treatments for PTSD are greatly needed for both veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and veterans of other eras.

Read >

Abstract: Objective: Sexual dysfunction accompanied by depression may be altered by antidepressants. The effects of antidepressants on sexual dysfunction among males and females remain to be investigated.Methods: Three groups of subjects, drug-free patients with depression (N=125), medicated patients with depression (N=145) and healthy volunteers (N=255), were recruited. A Chinese version of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire was employed to assess sexual function as the primary outcome.Results: Drug-free depressed females and medicated depressed males had more sexual dysfunction than healthy controls

Read >

Abstract: Objective: This prospective study aimed to estimate the prevalence and course of depression during chemotherapy in women with Stage I–III breast cancer, identify potential risk factors for depression and determine which treatments for depression were being used and which were most preferred.Method: Thirty-two women were followed over consecutive chemotherapy infusions, with 289 assessments conducted altogether (mean, 9.0 assessments/subject). Current depression, anxiety, physical symptoms and mental health service use were recorded during each assessment.

Read >

Abstract: Objective: To examine whether preoperative psychological dysfunctions rather than intraoperative factors may differentially predict short- and long-term postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) in patients after cardiac surgery.Method: Forty-two patients completed a psychological evaluation, including the Trail Making Test Part A and B (TMT-A/B), the memory with 10/30-s interference, the phonemic verbal fluency and the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression (CES-D) scale for cognitive functions and depressive symptoms, respectively, before surgery, at discharge and at 18-month follow-up.Results: Ten (24%) and 11 (26%) patients showed POCD at discharge and at 18-month follow-up, respectively. The duration of cardiopulmonary bypass significantly predicted short-term POCD [odds ratio (OR)=1.04, P .23).Conclusions: Our findings showed that preexisting depressive symptoms rather than perioperative risk factors are associated with cognitive decline 18 months after cardiac surgery. This study suggests that a preoperative psychological evaluation of depressive symptoms is essential to anticipate which patients are likely to show long-term cognitive decline after cardiac surgery.

Read >

Importance Long-term longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the trajectory of depressive symptoms across adulthood and to individuate factors that may contribute to increases in depressive symptoms in older adulthood. Objectives To estimate the trajectory of depressive symptoms across the adult life span; to test whether this trajectory varies by demographic factors (sex, ethnicity, and educational level) and antidepressant medication use; and to test whether disease burden, functional limitations, and proximity to death explain the increase in depressive symptoms in old age. Design Longitudinal study

Read >

Abstract: Objective: There is paucity of information on epilepsy and suicide in Nigeria. The objective of this study therefore was to assess the prevalence and determinants of suicide risk among adults with epilepsy (AWE) in Kaduna, Nigeria.Method: We administered the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the three-item Oslo Social Support Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to 170 consecutive AWE attending the outpatient clinic of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Kaduna, between January and June 2011 to determine the prevalence of suicide risk, the level of social support and the psychological symptoms, respectively. We also recorded the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects.Results: There are 99 males and 71 females.

Read >