Importance Exposure to trauma increases the risk for developing threat (ie, fear) symptoms, such as reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and loss (ie, dysphoria) symptoms, such as emotional numbing and depressive symptoms. While preclinical data have implicated the activated dynorphin/?-opioid receptor (KOR) system in relation to these symptoms, the role of the KOR system in mediating these phenotypes in humans is unknown. Elucidation of molecular targets implicated in threat and loss symptoms is important because it can help inform the development of novel, mechanism-based treatments for trauma-related psychopathology.

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Abstract: Objective: Eating disorder (ED) symptoms have gone mostly unexamined among veterans. The current study assessed rates of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms and diagnoses and their associations with common comorbidities among male and female veterans.Method: Participants were US military veterans who screened positive for trauma histories and/or a probable Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis (n=499). Symptoms of PTSD were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and symptoms of EDs, mood, and substance use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV.Results: Lifetime rates of BN and BED diagnoses were comparable to civilian populations, and a considerable range of lifetime and current BN and BED symptoms were identified

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Importance Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Objective To test the roles of initial psychiatric reactions, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and ongoing stressors on delayed-onset PTSD

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