Importance Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is believed to be one factor contributing to rising suicide rates among military personnel and veterans. This study investigated the association of cumulative TBIs with suicide risk in a clinical sample of deployed military personnel referred for a TBI evaluation. Objective To determine whether suicide risk is more frequent and heightened among military personnel with multiple lifetime TBIs than among those with no TBIs or a single TBI.
Abstract: Context: Delirium is prevalent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and has been associated with negative clinical outcomes. However, a quantitative and systematic assessment of published studies has not been conducted.Objective: Meta-analysis of clinical observational studies was performed to investigate the association between delirium and clinical outcomes.Data sources and study selection: Relevant studies were identified by investigators from databases including Medline, Embase, OVID and EBSCO from inception to May 2012.
Importance Adverse perinatal circumstances have been associated with increased risk for autism in offspring. Women exposed to childhood abuse experience more adverse perinatal circumstances than women unexposed, but whether maternal abuse is associated with autism in offspring is unknown. Objectives To determine whether maternal exposure to childhood abuse is associated with risk for autism in offspring and whether possible increased risk is accounted for by a higher prevalence of adverse perinatal circumstances among abused women, including toxemia, low birth weight, gestational diabetes, previous induced abortion, intimate partner abuse, pregnancy length shorter than 37 weeks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, and alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy.
Importance Advancing paternal age has been linked to autism. Objective To further expand knowledge about the association between paternal age and autism by studying the effect of grandfathers’ age on childhood autism. Design Population-based, multigenerational, case-control study.
Abstract: Objective: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are undergoing maintenance hemodialysis have a higher prevalence of depression than the general population. The underlying cause of this association is unknown, but may be related to accumulation of uremic toxins. Little is known about the association of accumulation of uremic toxins and depression in hemodialysis patients.Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 209 CKD patients from a single institution to evaluate the associations of a soluble small uremic toxin (urea), a soluble large uremic toxin (?2 microglobulin) and two protein-bound uremic toxins [total p-cresol sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS)] with the presence of depression.Results: A total of 47 patients (22.4%) had depression.