Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to identify primary care practice characteristics associated with the quality of depression care in patients with comorbid chronic medical and/or psychiatric conditions.Method: Using data from cross-sectional organizational and patient surveys conducted within 61 primary care clinics in Quebec, Canada, the relationships between primary care practice characteristics, comorbidity profile, and the recognition and minimally adequate treatment of depression were assessed using multilevel logistic regression analysis with 824 adults with past-year depression and comorbid chronic conditions.Results: Likelihood of depression recognition was higher in clinics where accessibility of mental health professionals was not viewed to be a major barrier to depression care (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.13-2.30). Four practice characteristics were associated with minimal treatment adequacy: greater use of treatment algorithms for depression (OR=1.77; 95% CI=1.18-2.65), high value given to teamwork (OR=2.48; 95% CI=1.40-4.38), having at least one GP at the clinic devote significant time in practice to mental health (OR=1.54; 95% CI=1.07-2.21), and low perceived barriers to depression care due to inadequate payment models (OR=2.12; 95% CI=1.30-3.46).Conclusions: Several primary care practice characteristics significantly influence the quality of care provided to patients with depression and comorbid chronic conditions and should be targeted in quality improvement efforts.

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