Importance Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most common sequelae of childhood maltreatment, yet the independent contributions of SUDs and childhood maltreatment to neurobiological changes and the effect of the latter on relapse risk (a critical variable in addiction treatment) are relatively unknown. Objectives To identify structural neural characteristics independently associated with childhood maltreatment (CM; a common type of childhood adversity), comparing a sample with SUD with a demographically comparable control sample, and to examine the relationship between CM-related structural brain changes and subsequent relapse. Design, Setting, and Participants Structural magnetic resonance imaging study comparing 79 treatment-engaged participants with SUD in acute remission in inpatient treatment at a community mental health center vs 98 healthy control participants at an outpatient research center at an academic medical center

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Importance The DSM-5 classifies mood and anxiety disorders as separate conditions. However, some studies in adults find a unidimensional internalizing factor that underpins anxiety and depression, while others support a bidimensional model where symptoms segregate into distress (depression and generalized anxiety) and fear factors (phobia subscales). However, little is known about the phenotypic and genetic structure of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

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Director’s Blog Each year at this time, the Kavli Foundation announces its annual scientific prizes. In contrast to the Nobel Prizes, the Kavli Prizes cover three focal areas of science: astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience. Fred Kavli, who died recently, described these prizes as recognizing those who work on “the biggest, the smallest, and the most complex.” This year’s awards in neuroscience, to Brenda Milner, John O’Keefe, and Marcus Raichle, continue the tradition of recognizing those who embrace complexity.

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Importance Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in about 8% of pregnant women. Stressful conditions, including PTSD, are inconsistently linked to preterm birth. Psychotropic treatment has been frequently associated with preterm birth.

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Abstract: Objective: Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses. The reliability and the validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, a depression screening tool, have not been examined in the general population in China.

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Abstract: Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of and possible risk factors for skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: All of 337 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from the therapeutic community of a psychiatric hospital and underwent a detailed skin examination. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to compare the prevalence of skin diseases between patients with schizophrenia and those without.Results: In the clinical survey, fungal infection (61.4%) and dermatitis (46.9%) were the most common skin diseases.

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Abstract: Objective: To report a case of cycloserine-induced acute psychosis in a young female while on second line antitubercular treatment (ATT) for tubercular meningitis.Method: Case report.Results: A 20-year-old female, known case of tubercular meningitis on ATT since 8 months, presented with a 10-days history of headache, vomiting, and photophobia. A provisional diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis was made, and second-line ATT including cycloserine (750 mg/day) and levofloxacin (750 mg/day) was added.

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Director’s Blog Every cell in your body has the same DNA with about 23,000 genes. Yet blood cells and brain cells look different, have different proteins, and serve very different functions.

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Importance Over the past several years, there have been a number of mainstream media reports that the abuse of heroin has migrated from low-income urban areas with large minority populations to more affluent suburban and rural areas with primarily white populations. Objective To examine the veracity of these anecdotal reports and define the relationship between the abuse of prescription opioids and the abuse of heroin. Design, Setting, and Participants Using a mixed-methods approach, we analyzed (1) data from an ongoing study that uses structured, self-administered surveys to gather retrospective data on past drug use patterns among patients entering substance abuse treatment programs across the country who received a primary ( DSM-IV ) diagnosis of heroin use/dependence (n = 2797) and (2) data from unstructured qualitative interviews with a subset of patients (n = 54) who completed the structured interview

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Importance Since pornography appeared on the Internet, the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of consuming visual sexual stimuli have increased and attracted millions of users. Based on the assumption that pornography consumption bears resemblance with reward-seeking behavior, novelty-seeking behavior, and addictive behavior, we hypothesized alterations of the frontostriatal network in frequent users.

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