Abstract: Objectives: To estimate risk of comorbid depression on all-cause mortality over time among individuals with diabetes.Methods: The Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched through September 30, 2012. We limited our search to longitudinal or prospective studies reporting all-cause mortality among those having depression and diabetes, compared with those having diabetes alone that used hazard ratios (HRs) as the main outcome. Two reviewers independently extracted primary data and evaluated the quality of studies using predetermined criteria.
Abstract: Objective: The objective was to explore perspectives on reasons for psychotropic medication use in prisons.Method: We recruited a purposive sample of healthcare staff and patients prescribed psychotropic medicines from four East of England prisons. Participants took part in qualitative, semistructured interviews, which were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically.Results: While patients and healthcare staff viewed psychotropic medicines primarily as a treatment for reducing symptoms of mental illness, they were also used as a coping strategy and to reduce insomnia. Appropriate psychotropic prescribing was also thought to contribute towards the rehabilitation agenda and helped to maintain order in prisons.
Abstract: Objective: To systematically review the literature to determine if health risk behaviors in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are associated with subsequent symptom burden or level of functioning.Method: Using the PRISMA systematic review method we searched PubMed, Cochrane, PsychInfo and EMBASE databases with key words: health risk behaviors, diet, obesity, overweight, BMI, smoking, tobacco use, cigarette use, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity, activity level, fitness, sitting AND schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar illness, schizoaffective disorder, severe and persistent mental illness, and psychotic to identify prospective, controlled studies of greater than 6 months duration. Included studies examined associations between sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and subsequent symptom severity or functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.Results: Eight of the 2130 articles identified met inclusion criteria and included 508 patients with a health risk behavior and 825 controls. Six studies examined tobacco use, and two studies examined weight gain/obesity.
Abstract: Objective: To investigate sociodemographic-, living situation- and substance-related variables as predictors of current risky alcohol use for both female and male general hospital inpatients.Method: The sample of 6050 female and 8282 male general hospital inpatients was recruited in 2002–2004. Using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption, they were assigned to four drinking groups: abstinent, moderate use, slightly increased use and notably increased use. Gender-specific predictors of group affiliation were determined using multivariate multinomial logistic regressions.Results: In both genders, younger age, rural living environment, the occurrence of lifetime alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and current tobacco smoking were positively associated with risky alcohol use.
In the largest genetic study of psychiatric illness to date, scientists have discovered genetic links between 5 major psychiatric disorders. Medscape Medical News
Director’s Blog In 2007, Caryn James wrote in The New York Times that “autism has become to disorders what Africa is to social issues.” 1 This statement was intended to emphasize the emerging public recognition of autism during the preceding decade. But it was also a prescient comparison, for in the years since 2007, autism and Africa have become highly contentious topics with emerging movements that have polarized those involved and confused the broader public.
Director’s Blog In a commentary just published on innovation in health care, Narayan and colleagues describe the need for integrated solutions to mental health care. 1 Moving beyond “magic bullets” and the magical thinking of a single intervention for a complex problem, they recommend a comprehensive model that includes early detection, better access to care, monitoring, and patient-reported outcomes. None of this would be particularly innovative, except that Narayan and his colleagues all work for a pharmaceutical company.
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life (QoL), family burden and psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and to compare them with healthy controls and their relatives.Methods: Forty patients with OCD and 47 of their first-degree relatives as well as 40 healthy subjects and 45 of their first-degree relatives were recruited in this study. OCD and comorbid anxiety or mood disorders were determined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Comorbid Axis II disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders.