Importance Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been established as efficacious for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among older children and adolescents, yet its effect on young children has not been evaluated sufficiently. Objective To examine the relative efficacy of family-based CBT (FB-CBT) involving exposure plus response prevention vs an FB relaxation treatment (FB-RT) control condition for children 5 to 8 years of age. Design, Setting, and Participants A 14-week randomized clinical trial (Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young Children [POTS Jr]) conducted at 3 academic medical centers between 2006 and 2011, involving 127 pediatric outpatients 5 to 8 years of age who received a primary diagnosis of OCD and a Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total score of 16 or higher.

Read >