Director’s Blog In a wonderful new paper in Science , Jordi Quoidbach, Dan Gilbert, and Tim Wilson describe the “end of history illusion.” 1 This is not about the Mayan calendar or a Y2K syndrome. These scientists studied 19,000 people across six studies to answer a simple question: why do people so often make decisions that their future selves regret? Their results show that people consistently report that they have changed substantially in the past decade and just as consistently predict that they will not change nearly as much in the next decade
Director’s Blog Let’s start with some good news. Over the past few decades in the United States, we have seen dramatic reductions in mortality due to coronary artery disease (an over 60 percent reduction, with 1.1 millions deaths averted each year), AIDS (a 40 percent reduction, with over 30,000 deaths averted each year), and stroke (a 30 percent reduction, with over 20,000 deaths averted each year). Indeed, last month AIDS was declared a chronic disease, recognizing that a young person who becomes infected with HIV will likely survive for decades and die of other causes
Abstract: Objectives: To estimate risk of comorbid depression on all-cause mortality over time among individuals with diabetes.Methods: The Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched through September 30, 2012. We limited our search to longitudinal or prospective studies reporting all-cause mortality among those having depression and diabetes, compared with those having diabetes alone that used hazard ratios (HRs) as the main outcome. Two reviewers independently extracted primary data and evaluated the quality of studies using predetermined criteria.
Abstract: Objective: The objective was to explore perspectives on reasons for psychotropic medication use in prisons.Method: We recruited a purposive sample of healthcare staff and patients prescribed psychotropic medicines from four East of England prisons. Participants took part in qualitative, semistructured interviews, which were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically.Results: While patients and healthcare staff viewed psychotropic medicines primarily as a treatment for reducing symptoms of mental illness, they were also used as a coping strategy and to reduce insomnia. Appropriate psychotropic prescribing was also thought to contribute towards the rehabilitation agenda and helped to maintain order in prisons.
Abstract: Objective: To systematically review the literature to determine if health risk behaviors in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are associated with subsequent symptom burden or level of functioning.Method: Using the PRISMA systematic review method we searched PubMed, Cochrane, PsychInfo and EMBASE databases with key words: health risk behaviors, diet, obesity, overweight, BMI, smoking, tobacco use, cigarette use, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity, activity level, fitness, sitting AND schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar illness, schizoaffective disorder, severe and persistent mental illness, and psychotic to identify prospective, controlled studies of greater than 6 months duration. Included studies examined associations between sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and subsequent symptom severity or functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.Results: Eight of the 2130 articles identified met inclusion criteria and included 508 patients with a health risk behavior and 825 controls. Six studies examined tobacco use, and two studies examined weight gain/obesity.
Abstract: Objective: To investigate sociodemographic-, living situation- and substance-related variables as predictors of current risky alcohol use for both female and male general hospital inpatients.Method: The sample of 6050 female and 8282 male general hospital inpatients was recruited in 2002–2004. Using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption, they were assigned to four drinking groups: abstinent, moderate use, slightly increased use and notably increased use. Gender-specific predictors of group affiliation were determined using multivariate multinomial logistic regressions.Results: In both genders, younger age, rural living environment, the occurrence of lifetime alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and current tobacco smoking were positively associated with risky alcohol use.