Director’s Blog An understanding of how memory works has been the Holy Grail of psychology for the past century. Over the past fifty years, neuroscientists have joined that quest, searching for how and where the brain forms new memories and retrieves old ones.
Importance The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in the zinc finger protein 804A gene ( ZNF804A ) shows genome-wide association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Little is known regarding the expression of ZNF804A and the functionality of rs1344706. Objectives To characterize ZNF804A expression in human brain and to investigate how it changes across the life span and how it is affected by rs1344706, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Abstract: Objective: Thyroid dysfunction is common during pregnancy and the postpartum period and is known to cause psychiatric disturbances. A woman with Graves’ disease and psychosis in the postpartum period is described.Methods: A 22 year woman with Graves’ disease developed fluctuating orientation, catatonia, delusions of persecution and auditory hallucinations three days following childbirth.Results: The report discusses the clinical presentation. Treatment of both conditions led to resolution of symptoms.Conclusion: Graves’ disease with postpartum psychosis may present with delirium, catatonia and prominent auditory hallucinations and responds well to a combination of psychotropic and anti-thyroid drugs.Thyroid dysfunction should be assessed for and managed adequately in postpartum psychosis.
Abstract: Objective: Previous epidemiologic studies have documented a link between anxiety disorders and ulcer among adults. Few studies have examined these associations over time and little is understood about the pathways underlying these relationships.Method: Data were drawn from n=2101 adult participants in the Midlife Development in the United States I and II. Data on ulcer diagnoses were collected through self-report: among participants in the current sample, 38 reported ulcer at Waves 1 and 2 (prevalent ulcer), and 18 reported ulcer at Wave 2 but not at Wave 1 (incident ulcer)
Importance Several studies suggest that the apolipoprotein E ( APOE ) ε4 allele modulates cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). Whether this effect is secondary to the association of the APOE ε4 allele with cortical Aβ deposition or whether APOE ε4 directly influences CSF levels of Aβ42 independently of Aβ pathology remains unknown. Objective To evaluate whether the APOE genotype affects the diagnostic accuracy of CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD), in particular Aβ42 levels, and whether the association of APOE ε4 with CSF biomarkers depends on cortical Aβ status.
Importance Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while highly prevalent (7.6% over a lifetime), develops only in a subset of trauma-exposed individuals. Genetic risk factors in interaction with trauma exposure have been implicated in PTSD vulnerability. Objective To examine the association of 3755 candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with PTSD development in interaction with a history of childhood trauma.
Director’s Blog It’s difficult to overstate the impact that genomic medicine is having on biomedical research and practice. For cancer diagnostics, rare disease therapeutics, and fields like microbiomics and infectious diseases, the advent of cheap, fast, precise genomic sequencing has been a game changer. What about mental disorders
Abstract: Background: The psychopathological and clinical characteristics of adult patients with epilepsy attending our neurology clinic was evaluated to determine prevalence of psychopathology and its associated factors towards improving services and initiating collaborative care which is currently non-existent.Methods: The study was a 2 stage procedure conducted over one year using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in the first stage and Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) in the second stage. Diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was based on ICD-10 criteria.Results: Sixty-three patients were interviewed. Mean age was 34.43±13.7 years; more than half of the patients had less than one seizure episode per month
Abstract: Objective: The present study aimed to extract discriminating indicators for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from personal backgrounds and past history among depressed adult outpatients.Methods: Subjects were 430 depressed adults, consisting of patients with ASD (n=70) and those without ASD (n=360). Group comparison and discriminant analysis was conducted with regard to backgrounds (age, gender, education, marriage, living alone, physical diseases and family history of mood disorders) and past history (school non-attendance, bullied experience, psychotic-like experiences, conduct problems, suicide-related behaviors and interpersonal friction).Results: Six discriminating indicators (interpersonal friction, bullied experience, psychotic-like experiences, age under 32 years, school non-attendance and university educational level) were identified by stepwise discriminant analysis (P
Abstract: Objective: To test the feasibility and efficacy of a psychosocial intervention to address high-risk substance use in patients scheduled for elective surgery.Method: A group-format intervention, based in motivational interviewing principles, was provided prior to elective surgery to 107 participants with at-risk substance use, identified using the AUDIT-C and self-report of illicit drug use. Patient satisfaction was assessed with an anonymous survey. Within-subject comparisons of substance use at baseline and at a postoperative follow-up evaluation were conducted